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2018年考研英语(二)真题答案及解析

来源:www.fduky.com 作者:鸿知复旦考研网 浏览:392 次 发布时间:2017/12/25

2018年的考研初试已落下帷幕,各个科目的考研真题以及答案解析也已新鲜出炉,不管考得如何,只要你认真待之,就无后悔可言,因为它已成为你人生中不可或缺的宝贵经历之一,不时回忆起,也会为那个为了梦想坚持、努力的自己骄傲。下面,鸿知复旦考研网www.fduky.com就为各位考生整理发布2018年考研各个科目的真题。

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2018年考研英语(二)真题答案及解析


Section Use of English Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark

[A],[B], [C] or [D] on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is strong that people will 2 to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3 .

In a series of experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin school of Business tested students’ willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 , each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would 6 an electric shock when clicked.

Twenty-seven students were told with pens were electrified; another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified. 7 left alone in the room. The students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew that would 8 . Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli, 9 the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.

The drive to 10 is deeply rooted in humans, much the same as the basic drives for 11 or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct—it can 12 new scientific advances, for instance—but sometimes such 13 can backfire. The insight that curiosity can drive you to do 14 things is a profound one.

Unhealthy curiosity is possible to 15 , however. In a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one’s curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. Thinking about long-term 20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity,”Hsee says. In other words, don’t read online comments.

A.ignore B.protect C.discuss D.resolve

答案:D. resolve

考点:词义辨析

解析:文章首段第一句话就交代了全文主旨:Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? 人们浏览网络负面评论信息以及做一些明显令人痛苦的事情的原因。第二句指出原因:因为人们内心里有一种____不确定因素需求,空格处所需的动词和后面的宾语 uncertainty 构成动宾结构。A 选项 ignore,忽略,B 选项 protect,保护,C 选项 discuss,讨论,带入空格后,语义不通顺,所以不正确。D 选项 resolve,解决、消除,消除不确定性符合语义要求;故正确答案为 D 

 resolve

A.refuse B.seek C.wait D.regret

答案:B. seek

考点:词义辨析解析:空格所在句指出:这项新研究表明,这种求知需求如此强烈以至于人们会_____(答案)来满足他们的好奇心即使他们清楚答案会_____。空格处所填入的词需要和后面隐含的宾语答案来构成顺畅的语义搭配,只有 B 选项 seek, 试图、设法、寻找,符合要求;A

选项 refuse,拒绝,C  wait,等待,C 选项 regret,遗憾,带入后,语义不通顺。故正确答案

 B.seek

A.rise B.last C.hurt D.mislead

答案:C.hurt

考点:词义辨析解析:空格所在句指出:这项新研究表明,这种求知需求如此强烈以至于人们寻找答案来满足他们的好奇心即使答案明显本句中的 even when(即使)构成了前后的对立关系,因此空格处所填入的词需和前面的感情色彩词“strong”及语义构成对立,只有 C 选项 hurt

(令人痛苦)符合要求;另外此处的 it is clear that the answer will hurt 也和第一句中的 that will obviously be painful 构成了近义复现。故 C 选项为正确答案。

A.alert B.expose C.tie D.treat

答案:B.expose 考点:固定短语

解析:空格所在处,构成了___oneself to sth 结构,只有 D 选项 expose 符合要求,使某人

暴露在……中,故 B 选项 expose 为正确答案。

A.trial B.message C.review D.concept 答案:A.trial

考点:词义辨析

解析:本段段首提到“a series of four experiments”,空格所在句给出其中一个实验的信息,只有 A 选项 trail  experiment 语义相近,故正确答案为 A 选项 trail

A.remove B.deliver C.weaken D.interrupt 答案:B.deliver 考点:语义逻辑

解析:上文指出:For one trialeach participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher

claimed were from a previous experiment。在一个试验中,研究人员给每位受试者一堆笔

并声称其源于先前的实验。这是实验的背景。下文具体实验展开,Half of the pens would… an electric shock when clicked。有一半的比在按下的时候会使人触电。所以比对选项,要选择 deliver ,发出,递送。因此 B 为正确答案。

A.Unless B.If C.When D.Though 答案:C.When

考点:逻辑关系

解析:上文讲的是 Twenty-seven students were told which pens were riggedanother 27 were told only…研究人员告知了 27 名受试学生哪些笔是内有玄机,而另外 27 名学生只知道有些笔是带电的。下文就是具体的发生的实验状态了。当他们独自在房里时,  而不是条件 if unless 或者转折关系。因此选择 C

A.change B.continue C.disappear D.happen 答案:D.happen 考点:语义逻辑

解析:根据上文的实验背景,试验中 27 个人知道哪些笔是内有玄机,而另外 27 名学生只知道有些笔是带电的。下面的告知了实验的结论:当他们独自在房里时,那些不知哪些笔带电的学生按下了更多的笔头,比这些受试者多,后面是定语,显然这些受试者是只上文被告知的人,所以这些人知道 the students who knew what would happen,强调结果性。所以选择 D

A.such as B.rather than C.regardless of D.owing to 答案:A.such as 考点:逻辑关系解析:上文在之后其他刺激因素的实验中,后文讲到具体的实验:指甲刮黑板的声音和令人生厌的昆虫图片显然这里需要例证关系,故选择 A

A.disagree B.forgive C.discover D.forget 答案:C.discover 考点:语义逻辑

解析:文章开篇提出:The human drive to resolve uncertainty is so strong …人们对于寻找答案以消除不确定因素总是乐此不疲。再根据上文的实验,都表示这是一种 discover 的需求,越是不确定的,越好奇。故选择 C

A.pay B.food C.marriage D.schooling 答案:B.food

考点:语义逻辑

解析:这个空出现在卡内基梅隆大学(Carnegie Mellon University)的观点中,前后观点没有任何转折连词,所以前后句应该一脉相承。前文中 the drive is deeply rooted in human

指的是人类根深蒂固的本性,而且后文也说到 curiosity is a good instinct(本能),探索的动力在人类中根深蒂固,与食物或避难所的基本动力相当。因此此处应该选 foodA 选项 pay 支付;C 选项marriage 婚姻;D 选项 schooling 学习教育,皆不符合文意。

A.begin with B.rest on C.lead to D.learn from 答案:C.lead to 考点:固定搭配解析:本句意思是:好奇心通常被认为是一种很好的本能——它会________新的科学进步,此处选择 A 选项 begin with 开始,C 选项 lead to 符合文意。B 选项 rest on 取决于;D 选项 learn from 学习, 皆不符合文意。

A.inquiry B.withdrawal C.persistence D.diligence 答案:A.inquiry 考点:语义逻辑

解析:but sometimes such ___can backfirebut 一词的出现就说明前后两句话是转折句义,

前文说好奇心会带来新的科学进步;后文的一个指示代词 such 一出现,就证明和前句的

主语是一致的,在此只能选择 curiosity 的近义词,为 A inquiryB 选项 withdrawal 撤回;C 选项persistence 坚持; D 选项 diligence 勤奋,皆不符合文意。

A.self-deceptive B.self-reliant C.self-evident D.self-destructive 答案:D.self-destructive

考点:语义逻辑

解析:The insight that curiosity can drive you to do___ things is a profound one。因为前文有

所提示,but sometimes such ___can backfire,有时候好奇心会适得其反,这句话也是对于上文的承接,因此这里需要填入的是好奇心带来的副作用的表达,因此选 D self-destructive 自我毁灭的。A 选项 self-deceptive 自欺欺人的,B 选项 self-reliant 自力更生的;C 选项 self-evident 显而易见的, 皆不符合文意。

A.trace B.define C.replace D.resist 答案:D.resist

考点:语义逻辑

解析:Unhealthy curiosity is possible to ___ however。这句话之后出现了论据,用以支撑前文的论点:In a final experiment participants who were encouraged to predict how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to choose to see such an image,在最后的实验中,那些积极预测自己目睹不太悦目图片感受的受试者,他们选择此类图

片的可能性较小。此处 picture were less likely to choose to see such an image=resist,是对于

本段论点句的同义复现,因为选择 D 选项 resistA 选项 trace 追踪,B 选项 define 定义; C 选项replace 替代,皆不符合文意。

A.conceal B.overlook C.design D.predict 答案:D.predict 考点:语义逻辑解析:本段首句是本段的中心:然而,抵制病态的好奇心理是并非不可能。所以可以预

测出这一段会围绕抵制病态的好奇心会有什么好的影响。In a final experimentparticipants

who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less

likely to 17 to see such an image.16 题所在句子是 participants 的后置定语,用来修饰受测

者,他们积极地去如何,与后面定语从句中目睹不太愉悦的照片后他们将(would)会有什么样的感觉,可以得出是提前想象出来的,故选择 D predict,预测。

A.choose B.remember C.promise D.pretend 答案:A.choose 考点:语义逻辑解析:此题所在句子结构化简后是 participants were less likely to 17 to see such an image。这里面的 such image 指的是上面提到的 an unpleasant picture,所以既然已经知道图片会带

来不愉悦的感觉,就不可能去选择了,故选择 A choose 选择。

A.relief B.outcome C.plan D.duty 答案:B.outcome

考点:语义逻辑

解析:These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one‘s curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor 18 题所在位置是 the 18 of following through on one’s curiosity ahead of time 此短语是 imagining 同位语,用来解释imagining:为利用好奇心可提前想象的结果。所以此题选择是 B

A.how B.why C.where D.whether 答案:D.whether

考点:逻辑关系

解析:imagining can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor。这种结果可以帮助人们决定它们。。。值得一试。根据句间逻辑关系,这些研究结果表明,利用好奇心可提前想象事件的结果,从而帮助人们决定它们是否值得一试。故 D whether 为正确选项。

A.limitations B.investments C.consequences D.strategies 答案:C.consequences

考点:词义辨析

解析:“Thinking about long-term 20 is key to mitigating the possible negative effects of

curiosity 思考长期......才是减轻好奇心负面消极影响的关键所在。负面消极影响是好奇心带来的,所以要考虑这种长期的影响,A 选项 limitations 限制,B 选项 investment

投资, D 选项 strategies 策略, 都不符合语境,故 C 选项为正确选项。


Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A],[B], [C] or [D].

Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.

Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike Chain?

As Koziatek know, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.

But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority. School in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype...that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says.

On one hand,that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution.Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was.The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new principle.We want more for our kids,and rightfully so.

But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all—and the subtle devaluing of anything less—misses an important point:That’s not the only thing the American economy needs.Yes,a bachelor’s degree opens more doors.But even now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs,such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.

In other words,at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head,frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing,one obvious solution is staring us in the face.There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them.Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.

Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all,it risks overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts.

21.A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of     .

A.academic training

B.practical ability

C.pioneering spirit

D.mechanical memorization 答案 B. practical ability

这是一道细节题,根据题干关键词可定位至第二段最后一句话,意思是什么时候这种观点变得可接受了呢?学生应该能够说出美国第十三任总统的名字,但是却完全对坏了的自行车链束手无策。从作者使用问句的形式就可判断出作者并不接受这种观点,即学生只学会书本上

的知识而不具备实际能力。再结合上一句话即本段第二句话,Mr Koziatek  New Hampshire

高中的一名老师,在这所学校,学习不只是书本上的知识,或者是为了考试,也不是为了机械化的记忆,而是为了实际的技能。能看出,作者认为学生们缺少的是实际技能,所以答案是 B.

practical ability.

22.There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who.

A.have a stereotyped mind

B.have no career motivation

C.are financially disadvantaged

D.are not academically successful 答案 D. are not academically successful

这是一道具体细节题,根据题干关键词职业教育对孩子存在的偏见可定位至第四段最后一句,意思是在很多职业化教育的学校中,有这样一种老套的思想,那就是,职业教育是针对

那些在学术上不能成功的那些孩子的。根据这句话可确定答案就是 D.are not academically successful, 其他选项均不符合文意。

23.we can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates.

A.used to have more job opportunities

B.used to have big financial concerns

C.are entitled to more educational privileges

D.are reluctant to work in manufacturing 答案 A. used to have more job opportunities

这是一道细节推断题,根据题干第五段和 high school graduates 回到原文定位致第五段第三句,说到美国经济曾经提供给高中毕业生的那种 the job security 已经在很大程度上 evaporated

也就是消失了,那说明过去的时候高中毕业生是有职业安全感的,故选 A,其他选项都不在定位处,可以排除。

24.The headlong push into bachelors degrees for all.

A.helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs

B.may narrow the gap in working-class jobs

C.indicates the overvaluing of higher education

D.is expected to yield a better-trained workforce 答案 C. indicate the overvaluing of higher education

这是一道事实细节题,根据题干内容“the headlong push”找到出处是第六段开头 But 后,发现后面还有一个 and...和其并列,所以主要关注对这两部分的评价,后面有明显的标点:冒号

出现,冒号后说 that is not the only thing the American economy needs. 可以看出这句话对前面的

否定,选项中只有 C 选项动词 overvalue 是负面词,而且提到主题词 education。故选 C

25.The author’s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as.

A.tolerant

B.cautious

C.supportive

D.disappointed 答案 C. supportive

这是一道态度题,放在最末的态度题更倾向于到最后一段找答案。通过定位词 Koziatek’s school 看到最后一段也确实提到了,说它是一个 wake-up call。也就是在唤醒人们教育不应该

是统一的形式,这样会 overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts,也就是忽视人才的差异性。所以

可以看出作者是支持的态度。


Text 2

While fossil fuels—coaloilgas—still generate roughly 85 percent of the world’s energy supply, it's clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and solar.The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the worldThey now account for more than half of new power sources going on line.

Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about the plummeting prices of renewables especially wind and solar.The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.

In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source.In Scotland for examplewind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes.While the rest of the world takes the leadnotably China and Europethe United States is also seeing a remarkable shift.In Marchfor the first timewind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the USreported the US Energy Information Administration.

President Trump has underlined fossil fuels—especially coal—as the path to economic growth.In a recent speech in Iowahe dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source.But that message did not play well with many in Iowawhere wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state’s electricity generation—and where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.

The question“what happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?”has provided a quick put-down for skeptics.But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.

The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturerswho are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles.Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now,this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.

While there’s a long way to gothe trend lines for renewables are spiking.The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up—perhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change.What Washington does—or doesn’t do—to promote alternative energy may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought.

26.The word“plummeting”(Line 3Para.2)is closest in meaning to.

A.stabilizing

B.changing

C.falling D.rising 答案 C falling

这是一道词义句意题,要想知道 plummeting 的意思,首先要回到原文找线索,即 plummeting 所在的句子以及上下句,由原文可知,plummeting 所在句子是在说现在例如风能和太阳能这样的可再生资源的价格的问题,plummeting 是修饰可再生资源的价格的,接着二段最后一句就在用具体数字来证明可再生资源的成本在下降,如太阳能成本下降了百分之八十,风能也降到三分之一,由此可知,可再生资源的成本在下降,plummeting 的含义是下降的意思。

所以选择 C falling

27.According to Paragraph 3the use of renewable energy in America.

A.is progressing notably

B.is as extensive as in Europe

C.faces many challenges

D.has proved to be impractical 答案 A is progressing notably

这是一道具体细节题,根据题干关键词定位至第三段第三句及第四句,意思是在中国和欧洲等国家已经领先时,美国也在见证着巨大的改变。根据美国能源信息局报道,三月份,美国首次使用风能和太阳能产生了超过百分之十以上的能源。这足以说明在美国,可再生能源的使用正在取得显著地进步。所以答案是 A

28.It can be learned that in Iowa, .

A.wind is a widely used energy source

B.wind energy has replaced fossil fuels

C.tech giants are investing in clean energy D.there is a shortage of clean energy supply 答案A wind is a widely used energy source

这是一道细节推断题,根据题干关键词定位至第四段第三句,在爱荷华州,风力涡轮机点缀着这个州并提供了此州百分之三十六的电能,并且还吸引了像微软这样的科技巨头公司。因此可判断,在爱荷华州,风能是一种广泛使用的能源。所以答案是 A

29.Which ofthe following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6? A.Its application has boosted battery storage.

B.It is commonly used in car manufacturing.

C.Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.

D.Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult. 答案 C its continuous supply is becoming a reality

这是一道是非细节题,根据题干给出的段落位置,5-6 两段和主题词 clean energy,回到原文的第5-6 段,这两段都不长,第五段出现了 But 后讲到电池容量的提升 a boost in the storage

 A 选项不符,并不是因果关系,故排除;B 选项说道广泛用在制造业也不符合原文第六段第一句;D 选项和原文第六段最后一句是语义相反的,故也排除;正确选项 C 是和这句话语义一致的,也是和全文主题一致的,故为正确答案。

30.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy.

A.will bring the US closer to other countries

B.will accelerate global environmental change

C.is not really encouraged by the US government D.is not competitive enough with regard to its cost 答案 C is not really encouraged by the US government

这是一道细节推断题,题干问根据最后一段可以推断出来可再生能源怎么了,回到原文最后一段第一句就表明尽管还有很长一段路要走,可再生能源发展的趋势在增强。后面也提到

改变的节奏在加快,对 slowing 气候变化有 meaningful effect,所以可以看出 B 选项 accelerate...

是不对的,D 选项中提到的价格不具有竞争力不在本段当中,也应排除。剩下的两个选项都提到了美国,就应该重点看最后一句,最后一句提到华盛顿政府做或不做什么都 may mean less and less...所以可以看出美国不应该是和其他国家更近,排除 A,所以选 C,美国不是真正支持

可再生能源的。


Text 3

The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishing—Amazon has just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for$13.5bnbut two years ago

Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the Whats App messaging servicewhich doesn’t have any physical product at all. What Whats App offered Facebook was an intricate and finely detailed web of its users’ friendships and social lives.

Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link phone numbers to

Facebook identitiesbut it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through.Even without knowing what was in the messagesthe knowledge of who sent them and to whom was enormously revealing and still could be.What political journalistwhat party whipwould not want to know the makeup of the Whats App groups in which Theresa May’s enemies are currently plotting?It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460 shops it owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what.

Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power.But it is clumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy. By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace, to be replaced by new abuses of power.But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too. Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this is not obvious when the users of these services don’t pay for them.The users of their services are not their customers.That would be the people who buy advertising from them—and Facebook and Googlethe two virtual giantsdominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media and entertainment companies.

The product they’re selling is dataand wethe usersconvert our lives to data for the benefit of the digital giants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphids for the honeydew they produce when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital lives yield.Ants keep predatory insects away from where their aphids feed; Gmail keeps the spammers out of our inboxes.It doesn’t feel like a human or democratic relationshipeven if both sides benefit.

31. According to Paragraph 1, Facebook acquired Whats App for its.

A.digital products

B.user information

C.physical assets

D.quality service 答案 [B]user information

解析:细节题。根据题干信息定位到第一段第二句。该句提到两年前 Facebook 花了更多的钱获得了 WhatsApp 的信息服务。接着提到 WhatsApp 提供给 Facebook 的是关于其用户的朋友圈以及社会生活等具体精炼的信息。由此可知,B 项为正确答案。

32.Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities may.

A.worsen political disputes

B.mess up customer records

C.pose a risk to Facebook users D.mislead the European commission 答案[C]pose a risk to Facebook users

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词 linking the phone number 定位第二段第一句。该句提到Facebook 向欧洲委员会承诺不会把用户的电话号与 Facebook 的身份认证连系到一起,但是协议通过之后 Facebook 立马失信。接下来提到甚至都不清楚信息里面都有什么,也不知谁发的消息,发送的目的又是什么。因此,可能会给用户造成风险。因此 C 项符合文意。

33.According to the author,competition law.

A.should serve the new market powers

B.may worsen the economic imbalance

C.should not provide just one legal solution D.cannot keep pace with the changing market 答案 [D]cannot keep pace with the changing market

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词 competition law 定位到第三段第一句。该句指出竞争法

似乎成为解决这些不平等权力的唯一办法,但是此法案太过笨拙。下一句提到一方面,相比于数据经济变化的速度,此法案发展是非常缓慢的。由此可知,该法案跟不上当前市场变化的步伐。因此 D 项为正确答案。

34.Competition law as presently interpreted can hardly protect Facebook users because.

A.they are not defined as customers

B.they are not financially reliable

C.the services are generally digital

D.the services are paid for by advertisers 答案[D]the services are paid for by advertisers.

解析:根据题目中的 because 可确定为因果细节题。题干中的信息出现在第三段后半部分,

是题目中的原词 competition law as presently interpreted,而原因在其后面的句子。下文写到,the users of their services are not,读到这里的 not,一定要找而是谁。继续读下一句,That would be the people who buy advertising from them…,与选项对应,可得出[D]the services are paid for by

advertisers.

35.The ants analogy is used to illustrate.

A.a win-win business model between digital giants

B.a typical competition pattern among digital giants

C.the benefits provided for digital giants’ customers

D.the relationship between digital giants and their users 答案[D]the relationship between digital giants and their users.

解析:根据题目中 is used to illustrate 可判断为例证题,要找到 the ants analogy 论据所证明

的论点;论点在论据之前,因此先找到论据 the ants analogy,再找到论据前的论点句。所以本题

定位到最后一段的第一句,The product …is dataand we…convert our lives to data…。此句中,

data  digital giantswe  users。因此答案为[D]the relationship between digital giants and their

users.


Text 4

To combat the trap of putting a premium on being busy,Cal Newport,author of Deep work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted world,recommends building a habit of “deep work”—the ability to focus without distraction.

There are a number of approaches to mastering the art of deep work—be it lengthy retreats dedicated to a specific task;developing a daily ritual;or taking a “journalistic” approach to seizing moments of deep work when you can throughout the day. Whichever approach,the key is to determine your length of focus time and stick to it.

Newport also recommends “deep scheduling” to combat constant interruptions and get more done in less time.“At any given point,I should have deep work scheduled for roughly the next month.Once on the calendar I protect this time like I would a doctor’s appointment or important meeting”,he writes.

Another approach to getting more done in less time is to rethink how you prioritize your day—in particular how we craft our to-do lists.Tim Harford, author of Messy:The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives,points to a study in the early 1980s that divided undergraduates into two groups:some were advised to set out monthly goals and study activities;others were told to plan activities and goals in much more detail,day by day.

While the researchers assumed that the well-structured daily plans would be most effective when it came to the execution of tasks,they were wrong:the detailed daily plans demotivated students.Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the daily to-do list ineffective,while leaving room for improvisation in such a list can reap the best results.

In order to make the most of our focus and energy. We also need to embrace downtime,or as

Newport suggests,“be lazy.”

“Idleness is not just a vacation,an indulgence or a vice;it is as indispensable to be brain as

Vitamin D is to the body...[idleness]is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done,”he argues.

Srini Pillay,an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School,believes this counter-intuitive link between downtime and productivity may be due to the way our brains operate When our brains switch between being focused and unfocused on a task,they tend to be more efficient.

“What people don’t realize is that in order to complete these tasks they need to use both the focus and unfocus circuits in their brain”. says Pillay.

The key to mastering the art of deep work is to ________.

A.keep to your focus time

B.list your immediate tasks

C.make specific daily plans D.seize every minute to work 答案 A. keep to your focus time

解析:细节题。根据题干的 mastering the art of deep work 定位到第二段首句。该句指出

很多种掌握深度工作的方法-不论是专注于指定工作时长时间的后退,或者养成惯例,还是当你一天有闲暇之余采用纪实的方式捕捉深度工作的瞬间。接着提到不论是那种方式,关键在于确定你的专注力时间长度并保持专注。由此可知,A 项为正确答案。

The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that ________.

A.distractions may actually increase efficiency

B.daily schedules are indispensable to studying

C.students are hardly motivated by monthly goals D.detailed plans many not be as fruitful as expected 答案 D. detailed plans may not be as fruitful as expected

解析:例证题。根据题干时间信息 1980s 以及 Harford 定位到第四段与第五段。第四段首句指出另一种短时间做更多事情的方法是反思怎么才能优先处理好你的一天-特别是制作我们待办事项的方法。接着作者举例大学生们分成小组每天做各种详细复杂的任务。第五段首句用 while 画风一转,表示这种复杂的任务让学生们感到消极,并表示工作中难免会分散注意力,这将影响日常待办事项的效率。可知,作者用反面例子来论证观点,即复杂的计划可能没有像期望的那样有效果。故选 B 项。

According to Newport, idleness is ________.

A.a desirable mental state for busy people

B.a major contributor to physical health

C.an effective way to save time and energy D.an essential factor in accomplishing any work 答案 D. an essential factor in accomplishing any work.

解析:根据题目 Newport 得出本题目为细节题中的文中人物观点题。根据题干中的 idleness 可定位到倒数第三段,idleness is not,读到这里依然需要看下文,下面提到 it is as…as…is

necessary to getting any work done。再对应选项,可直接选出[D]an essential factor in accomplishing any work

Pillay believes that our brains’ shift between being focused and unfocused _______.

A.can result in psychological well-being

B.can bring about greater efficiency

C.is aimed at better balance in work

D.is driven by task urgency

答案 B. can bring about greater efficiency.

解析:根据题目中的 Pillay believes 可得出本题目为细节题中的文中人物观点题型。根据题目中的信息,可以定位到倒数第二段最后一句,明确指出 they tend to be more efficient。然后

对应选项得出 B. can bring about greater efficiency

This text is mainly about _______.

A.ways to relieve the tension of busy life

B.approaches to getting more done in less time

C.the key to eliminating distractions D.the cause of the lack of focus time 答案 B. approaches to getting more done in less time.

解析:根据题目的 mainly about 可知为文章主旨题,首先可以通过题目的复现内容找与文章主旨有关的词汇,题目中反复出现了 focus 内容,可判断与人们的注意力有。其次,文章主旨一般在开篇第一段或第二段会出现,第一段引用 Cal Newport 的观点指出 focus without

distraction 话题,第二段就提到了主题 approaches to mastering the art of deep work,此刻主题已明确,并且第四段有明显的证明 another approach。所以本题选[A]approaches to getting more done in less time


Part B

Directions:

Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column.

Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Just say it

Be present

Pay a unique compliment

Name, places, things

Find the “me too”s

Skip the small talk

Ask for an opinion

Five ways to make conversation with anyone

Conversations are links, which means when you have a conversation with a new person a link gets formed and every conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link.

You meet new people every day: the grocery worker, the cab driver, new people at work or the security guard at the door. Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link.

Here are five simple ways that you can make the first move and start a conversation with strangers.

41.____________

Suppose you are in a room with someone you don’t know and something within you says“I want to talk with this person”—this is something the mostly happens with all of us. You wanted to say something—the first word—but it just won’t come out. It feels like it is stuck somewhere, I know the feeling and here is my advice just get it out.

Just think: that is the worst that could happen? They won’t talk with you? Well, they are not talking with you now!

I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow. So keep it simple: “Hi”,“Hey”or“Hello”—do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you can, put on a big smile and say“Hi”.

42.____________

It’s a problem all of us face: you have limited time with the person that you want to talk with and you want to make this talk memorable.

Honestly, if we got stuck in the rut of“hi”,“hello”, “how are you?”and“what’s going on?”you will fail to give the initial jolt to the conversation that’s can make it so memorable.

So don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions. Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask.

43.____________

When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point. When you start conversation from there and then move outwards, you’ll find all of a sudden that the conversation becomes a lot easier.

44.____________

Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy on their phone, and if you ask for their attention you get the response “I can multitask”.

So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly.

Make eye contact, you can feel the conversation.

45.____________

You all came into a conversation where you first met the person, but after some time you may have met again and have forgotten their name. Isn’t that awkward!

So remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to the place they want to go, the things they like, the thing the hate—whatever you talk about.

When you remember such thing you can automatically become investor in their well being. So the feel a responsibility to you to keep that relationship going.

That’s it. Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone. Every person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with!

41. A。该小标题需要涵盖三段内容。第一段开始说到你想跟陌生人说话,但是“it just

won’t come out”,提到说话说不出来,随后直接出现我的建议“My advicejust get it out“,即去说。所以选 AJust say it 去说

42,选 F。该小标题下第一段第一句话就说了你时间有限“you have limited time”,然后说到如果陷到寒暄当中“hihellohow are you what is going on”会让对话没法令人印象深刻。下一段“So”表明结论,去问更多个人问题“personal questions”,所以选 FSkip the small talk 跳过寒暄

43. E。第一句话就说到了第一次交谈要找到共同点“have in common”,从这个共同点“that

point”来开展对话“build the conversation”,所以选 Efind the “me too”s 找到共同点

44. C。第一段先举例,说你跟人讲心事时,别人分心干别的。然后下一段“So”表明结

论,人家跟跟你沟通,你要全心投入“wholeheartedly”。所以选 CPay a unique complement 

45,选 D。第一句话就提到了忘记只见过一面的人的名字“name”“So”后面又提到回忆地

“places”和好恶的事情“things”等细节,所以选 DNameplacesthings

Section  Translation

46.Directions:

Translate the following text into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the

ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

A fifth garder gets a homework assignment to select his future career path from a list of occupations. He ticks “astronaut” but quickly adds “scientist” to the list and selects it as well. The boy is convinced that if he reads enough. He can explore as many career paths as he likes. And so he reads—everything from encyclopedias to science fiction novels. He reads so passionately that his parents have to institute a “no reading policy”at the dinner table.

That boy was Bill Gates,and he hasn’t stopped reading yet—not even after becoming one of the most science fiction and reference books; recently, he revealed that he reads at least so nonfiction books a year. Gates chooses nonfiction title because they explain how the world works.“Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge,”Gates says.

参考译文:

一个五年级的学生收到一份家庭作业:即从一系列职业中选择自己未来的职业道路。他勾划了宇航员,但很快由将科学家添加到列表中,并也将其选中。这个男孩相信,如果他读得足够多,他就可以探索尽可能多的他喜欢的职业道路。所以他读书广泛——从百科全书到科幻小说。他读得如此投入,以至于他的父母不得不制定一个:在餐桌上的不读书政策

那个男孩就是比尔盖茨,他没有停止阅读,甚至在他成为这个星球上最成功的人士之一后,仍旧没有停下来。现在,他的阅读材料已经不再是科幻小说和工具书了:最近据他所说,他一年内至少读了 50 本非科幻小说。比尔盖茨选择非科幻小说类书籍,是因为这类书籍解释了世界是如何运作的。每本书都开辟了新的知识探索渠道。盖茨说。


Section  Writing

Part A

47. Directions:

Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit Professor Smith. Write him an email to

1)apologize and explain the situation, and 2)suggest a future meeting.

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name. Use“Li Ming” instead. Do not write your address.(10 points) 参考范文:

Dear Prof.Smith,

I am sorry to tell you that I have to cancel my travel plan to your city for some reasons,thus I am afraid that I couldn't visit you according to the due course.So I am writing for the purpose of extending my sincere apology to you.

Actually, I miss you very much, but I received a notice suddenly that I have to attend an exam if I would love to apply for an opportunity for further study abroad.Nevertheless I haven't prepared for it very well Hence I have to spend more time and energy on it.

Please accept my heartfelt apology again! I am really sorry for any inconvenience I caused. And I am honorable to ask if I could make an another appointment with you.I am looking forward to your response at your earliest convenience. Regards !

Yours faithfully,

Li Minge


Part B

48. Directions

Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing you should

1)interpret the chart and

2)give your comments

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)


Part B

参考范文:

As is depicted by the pie chart, the author is trying to show factors why consumers choose a restaurant in a certain city. According to the data reflected by the chart, it is not hard to see that speciality can be the most important factor to choose a canteen for consumers, which takes up 36.38%. however, other factors including service, environment and price account for 26.8%, 23.8% and 8.4% respectively. These statistics reflect an thought-provoking phenomenon.

There are two reasons accounting for this situation reflected by the chart above. The most important factor we should take into consideration is the rapid economic development and the growth of purchasing power, which can explain the reason why the price takes up the smallest proportion in these factors when consumers choose canteen. Moreover, there is no deny in saying that an increasing number of people are paying closer attention to the new taste and fresh feeling which lead to the result that a large group of people choose restaurants according to the level of speciality.

Based on the analysis made above, it is safe to say that there is a tendency for people to choose a canteen largely depend on the speciality in the coming years. On the contrary, people will continue to pay increasingly less attention on the price.



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